Alopecia is a condition that affects the scalp and leads to a spot completely free of hair and is usually circular or oval alone or multiple and free of pores or scarring.Alopecia
This condition can affect any part of the body hair, but the scalp and chin area remains the most affected areas and the alopecia can be divided into several sections depending on the severity of the injury: may be alopecia specific through the emergence of one spot and more hair free and may be alopecia complete through The absence of hair on the entire scalp may be comprehensive through the absence of hair on the scalp and body.The causes are still unknown, but there are risk factors that increase the risk of alopecia including:
1 – Genetic factors – hereditary – There is usually a family story in the patient alopecia by up to 10-40% In the case of twins it was observed that the possibility of the second twin may reach To 55% if one of the twins is infected with alopecia.
In the case of the disease of the Mongols – genetic defect – in chromosome 21, the high incidence of alopecia have been found by up to 9%.
There is a belief that alopecia is a multi-gene disease – a disorder in more than one gene.
2 – Immunological factors: It was observed to accompany alopecia with some immune diseases such as vitiligo, immunoglobulin, lupus erythematosus, acute muscular dystrophy, anemia and diabetes have been proven to be an immune disorder that leads to the body to produce self-antibodies against follicles and the resulting hair growth.
3 – Antibiotic factors: There are hypotheses about viral causes of alopecia, especially some viruses of herpes.
4 – Psychological factors: the psychological state and its negative impact on poetic follicles.
5 – Neurological factors: There are neurotransmitters to stimulate the growth of hair has been observed decline in the level of these neurotransmitters and remains alopecia is a relatively common disease is a relatively chronic disease also has a global incidence of alopecia about 2%, while life is often infected people in the twenties Of people aged under 20 years of age may reach 60% and in terms of sex, they are almost equal with a higher probability of infection of males by 2 – 1 for females.There is no ethnic superiority, it affects all races.The alopecia pretends to be a spot or more completely free of hair and is normal and does not occur any changes such as skin or scarring or oesophageal and the noises of poetic experiments are present and sound and sometimes observed in the vicinity of the al-Taalabp some fractured fractured notice that takes a somewhat distinctive form where the diameter is thick of The tip and thinness of the diameter of the tip of the scalp (notice mark exclamation point) and its existence is evidence that alopecia is still in the stage of activity and effectiveness, which is one of the factors that indicate the malaise of the disease.
The most affected areas are the scalp, eyebrows, eyelashes, chin area and pubic area.
In advanced cases, you may experience changes in the path of the disease. It is mainly characterized by small holes that dot the nail surface. In the case of alopecia, the percentage of nails in the case of alopecia is 10% -66%.It is mainly based on the clinical examination and can be used the following tests: 1 – Blood test: to make sure there are no other diseases, especially immunological ones.
2 – microscopic examination to prevent the presence of ringworm head.
3. Biopsy.Differential Diagnosis:
Alopecia should be separated from the head ringworm, mania nervosa, common, lupus erythematosus (early stages).There is a special saying that the only thing that can be expected in the course of alopecia is that it is an unpredictable disease. There are cases where spontaneous healing occurs within 8 months to a year and there are cases where the disease extends to become more widespread and affects more than one place in the body and sometimes affects the whole body.
Note that there are many factors that may give us an idea of the course of the disease, which in this case are bad warning factors for the course of the disease.1 – if the injury occurred before the age of puberty.
2 – the existence of a family story of alopecia.
3 – the presence of more than an area infected with the body.
5 – the presence of inflammation of the skin is associated with alopecia.
6 – the presence of other immune diseases associated with alopecia.
It is said that alopecia is a recurrent disease that may be infected again after a period of healing may be prolonged or shortened.How to treat alopeciaDespite the great progress that has been made in recent years in the treatment of alopecia, there is currently no cure completely for alopecia.
Most treatments are gentle and work to correct the immune imbalance that causes the phenomenon. In addition to psychosocial support, the treatment is as follows:
1. topical treatment
UV therapy The method of treatment is generally based on the severity of the injury and the age of the patient and each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages.