Breast Cancer Causes and Symptoms

Breast cancer is an unstructured growth of breast cells, and in order to better understand what breast cancer is, you have to understand how cancer develops within the body in general.

Cancer occurs in the body as a result of abnormal changes or mutations in the genes responsible for regulating the growth of cells within the body and maintaining their health, and there are genes within the nucleus of each cell.breast cancer

The nucleus of the cell acts as a control chamber to regulate cell function and division through an organized process of cell growth. However, with some changes in genes within the nucleus, the nucleus may lose the ability to control cell division, making the cell divide abnormally.

Cancer or tumors are two types, benign cancer, which is not dangerous and is not considered a deadly cancer where the cells are semi-natural in that region and do not attack the surrounding cells and do not move to another place, while the other type is malignant cancer, which affects the nature of the body work by tumor area and moves to Other places of the body through the lymph nodes.

Breast cancer refers to the type of cancer that occurs in the split in some breast cells and is in the glands producing milk in the breast or ducts of milk or passages that reach milk to the nipple of the breast, and in some cases breast cancer occurs in fatty tissue and fibrous connective tissue in the breast.

Over time, these cancer cells can invade the healthy cells in the breast and make their way into the lymph nodes under the armpits and may reach other parts of the body.

Breast cancer occurs in several stages from its onset until the tumor is surgically removed. Although genetic disorders account for 90% of breast cancer cases, genetic factors, aging factors and hormonal changes in the body represent the remaining percentage of breast cancer. 
There are some steps that can reduce the chances of breast cancer or recurrence of breast cancer such as maintaining the right weight, reducing the intake of alcohol, stopping smoking and exercising regularly, and always remembering that breast cancer is not your fault or that of anyone else and learn prevention methods And treatment of early breast cancer.

Does breast cancer affect men or women only?

Although the breast area in men is very similar to breast area in women before adulthood, in addition to the existence of some ducts for the breast area of ​​men, but the chances of breast cancer for men, but few cases of breast cancer in men, according to the American Cancer Society including An estimated 2,300 cases of breast cancer for men in 2009.

Symptoms Of Breast Cancer

At first, symptoms of breast cancer may not appear immediately. There may be some minor abnormalities that you may not notice or some changes may occur. Often, diagnosis of mammalian breast or mammogram is one of the most common ways to detect early breast cancer. 
In some cases, the appearance of a lump in the breast, which can be noted by the expert doctor is the first signs of breast cancer and be painless but solid and have some edges, but there are some cases that these blocks are flexible and soft and circular, so when you doubt any changes in the breast area visit the doctor Immediately. 
According to the American Cancer Society, any of the following unusual changes may be the first symptoms of breast cancer :

– swelling of all or part of the breast 
– feeling of pain in the breast 
– irritation in the skin area of ​​the breast 
– the presence of pain in the nipple of the breast 
– the presence of redness in the nipple or thickness of the nipple or skin surface of the breast 
– swelling in the area under the armpits 
– the existence of some The excretions of the nipple are not secretion of the milk

It should be noted that these changes may be symptoms of infection or fungal and not breast cancer for the examination of the doctor is very important when these symptoms appear.

Causes of breast cancer
Most studies indicate that breast cancer diagnosed is 1 in 8 women with breast cancer

Age and sex : The higher the age, the greater the chances of developing breast cancer. Most advanced cases of breast cancer are over the age of 50 and the woman is 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer.

Family History of Breast Cancer : Having a history of patients with breast cancer or other types such as cervical cancer, ovarian cancer or colon cancer in the family or relatives raises the incidence of breast cancer to 20-30% in women.

PMS : Women who start their menstrual cycle 12 years ago or delay the blinding period to over 55 workers with increased chances of developing breast cancer.

Genes : Deficiencies in certain genes or mutations that may occur may increase the susceptibility of breast cancer to women.

Hormone therapy : taking drugs hormone therapy (Hormone replacement therapy)long periods could increase your risk for breast cancer.

Weight gain : Obesity and increased body fat increase the risk of breast cancer. Although there is no evidence of that theory, some researchers associate weight gain with increased estrogen secretion, which increases the likelihood of infection.

Breast cancer screening

When visiting the doctor will do the first clinical examination of each of the breast, abdomen, neck and chest area is important as an important preliminary examination and then diagnosed breast cancer in some ways, namely:

Magnetic resonance of the breast : It helps to identify and evaluate any abnormal change in the breast area

Ultrasound : The nature of existing blocks shows whether solid or soft

Examination of breast cells : by a thin needle to take a sample of breast cells and laboratory analysis

CT scan shows the degree of spread of breast cancer

Mammogram : It is one of the most important ways to detect breast cancer and helps to identify the presence of lumps in the breast or not

If breast cancer is detected , the doctor will perform some other tests to determine the degree of breast cancer so that breast cancer can be treated effectively. Treatment depends on the degree of infection directly.

What is breast cancer treatment?

Treatment of breast cancer for patients is according to a treatment plan depends on the type of breast cancer and the degree of breast cancer provided by the medical team is treated and there are some basic ways to treat breast cancer, namely:

Treatment of breast cancer by surgery

Most women with breast cancer require surgery on a large scale, and can be divided surgical treatment of breast cancer to remove the tumor from the breast or a little mastectomy 
– breast excision of the breast
in this surgery be removed only part of the breast referred to as partial mastectomy of the breast and be The size and location of breast cancer while maintaining the shape of the general breast, and only remove the tumors of the breast and some of the surrounding tissue, and examining the surrounding tissue laboratory, to see if there are still some cancer cells and in some cases, the provision of some doses of radiation therapy suitable after The partial excision of the breast

– Mastectomy

The surgery is when the cancer cells spread inside the breast, and are complete eradication of the internal breast tissue while retaining the outer skin layer to maintain the shape of two types.

• Root Breast Removal
The surgeon removes the lymph nodes under the armpit as well as the chest wall muscle and mastectomy completely, and with the advancement of modern technology, these operations are few.

• Removal of the
affected breast where the surgeon removes the axillary lymph glands in addition to the breast tissue.

Radiation therapy for breast cancer

Radiation therapy destroys cancer cells through a beam of high-energy radiation, and there are two methods of radiation therapy:

• External radiotherapy is by sending
a beam of radiation to regions affected by breast cancer from an external device determined by the treating physician and usually five sessions a week for five or six weeks.

• Topical
Radiation Therapy In this technique, some radioactive seeds are implanted in the breast next to cancer cells rather than using external radiation therapy

Chemotherapy for breast cancer

Treatment of breast cancer chemotherapy is through drugs that pass through the bloodstream to the cancer cells and be by mouth or intravenous injection. 
The chemotherapy for breast cancer is different according to the stage of cancer and whether partial surgery of the breast or not and be as follows:

Assistive chemotherapy : doses of chemotherapy are given after surgery to eradicate visible cancer cells to ensure that no small cells grow back to be breast cancer.

Advanced chemotherapy : In the case of spread of the tumor in many places of the body, and the medical team to determine doses and periods of treatment.

Hormonal therapy for breast cancer

Hormone therapy is used to reduce breast cancer recurrence after surgery, and hormonal therapy can also be used as adjuvant therapy

Note: Estrogen, which secrete the ovary, promotes the growth of breast cancer, especially those that contain receptors for estrogen.

The following drugs are used in hormonal therapy:

Tamoxifen: It prevents estrogen from adhering to estrogen receptors in breast cells

Flovistrant: It is also used to remove estrogen receptors and can be used in the case of tamoxifen.

Hormone inhibitors: They work to stop the production of estrogen in women after menopause.

Wave therapy for breast cancer

It is also called the biological treatment of breast cancer, which is one of the latest techniques for breast cancer, and uses anti-cancer drugs that target some changes in a cell that may become a cancerous cell, such as trasuzumab (Herceptin)

Prepared by d. Tamer Ghoneim

Sources: medicinenet.com, health.nytimes.com, breastcancer.org, webmd.com

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