Asthma treatment

asthma

Asthma is a chronic lung disease that may occur during any age, especially childhood. It affects the airways that are composed of tubes that carry air into and out of the lungs , where inflammation in the airways makes it swollen and very sensitive, interacting with some substances that They are inhaled with greater ferocity. The muscles around the airway are tight, resulting in narrowing of the airways, and thus the lack of airflow to the lung. In addition, the cells in the airways may make mucus in larger quantities than usual. Because they are sticky and dense, they cause further constriction. [1]

Symptoms and triggers of asthma

Asthma symptoms vary from person to person and include shortness of breath , chest pain, seizures of coughing , wheezing during exhalation, and sleep disturbance due to constipation or coughing. The doctor needs to diagnose asthma to know the symptoms of the patient and the question of cases of allergies in the family, and the same person as eczema (English: Eczema), and physical examination and hear the voice of the chest, in addition to doing a lung function tests for adults and children aged six Years and more using the device Spirometer (Spirometer), so that the patient breathes inside a tube for a few seconds to measure the amount of air inside and the extent of lung capacity and others. [2] [3]

Asthma causes a combination of genetic and environmental factors, while asthma triggers are more common among people. The most important are: [4] [5]

  • Airborne materials: such as dust mites, pollen, mildew and pet paw.
  • Environmental irritants such as cigarette smoke, air polluted with smog, dust, chemicals, vapors, and strong odors such as paint, paint and gasoline.
  • Respiratory diseases such as colds, flu, sore throat, sinusitis , pneumonia.
  • Exercise
  • Dry wind, cold air, and sudden change in the weather.
  • Expressing strong emotions: anger, fear, laughter, crying, screaming, and excitement.
  • Some types of drugs include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and beta blockers
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A condition in which gastric acid returns to the throat.

Asthma treatment

Asthma is a long-term and incurable disease, but the goal of treatment is to control the disease, irritating symptoms, maintain lung function, and ensure normal activity and sleep during the night. Asthma is usually treated with two types of drugs: Long-Term Control Medication and Quick-Relief Medication. The initial treatment depends on the severity of the disease, and the doctor makes the appropriate adjustments to the drugs from an increase And reduced by degree of disease control, so that the best control is obtained using the least possible amount of medication. [6]

Most asthma medications are taken by inhalation device ( in English: Inhaler) also called Spray ( in English: Puffer) which allows drug access directly to the lungs, or by spray ( in English: Nebuliser) where this device converts liquid medicines to spray inhaled Directly into the lungs. The device is an option for anyone with difficulty in using asthma sprays, and some drugs are pills. [7]

Pharmacological treatments

Long-term control drugs

These drugs are taken daily to reduce inflammation in the airway, thus reducing symptoms and asthma attacks. Asthma is the cornerstone of asthma treatment. [8] The following drugs include:

Inhaled Corticosteroids : The most effective long-term option to reduce inflammation and swelling in the airways. These drugs need several days to get weeks to get the most benefit from them. Examples include fluticasone and budesonide, And Mometasone. [8] [6]

Although inhaled corticosteroid is considered safe and less dangerous in the long run than its oral counterpart, it may cause some side effects, most notably an oral infection called thrush caused by a type of fungus that appears as white bumps on the soles of the cheek and tongue, Minimize the problem by using a separator or isolator in the inhaler (Spacer), and also through the mouthwash with water after each use of this type of medication. [6] [8] [9]

If the patient has severe acute asthma, oral corticosteroids, whether in the form of pills or liquid, can be used for a short period of time to control asthma. Long-term use of these drugs increases the risk of cataracts and osteoporosis (Osteoporosis). [6]

Inhaled Long Acting Beta Agonists : Helps to open the airways by relaxing the surrounding smooth muscles. Examples include Salmeterol and Formoterol, Of drugs with inhaled corticosteroid, it is worth mentioning that there are some drugs containing the two formulations in the form of a single drug to make it more convenient and convenient for the patient. [7] [8]

Leukotriene Modifiers : It is taken orally in the form of pills or liquid, reduces swelling in the airways, and helps to relax the smooth muscles, such as Montelukast. [7] [8]

Theophylline : Daily pills that expand bronchial tubes and keep the airways open by loosening the surrounding muscles. They have been much less used than before. [8]

Rapid rescue drugs

These medications are used when needed for quick and immediate rest as in cases of asthma attacks, but their effect lasts for a short time. It is also used before exercise and recommended by the doctor, as these drugs work to expand the trachea and open airway swollen breathing that limit breathing . [8]

Asthma patients should always carry this type of medication in case of need. It is important to note that rapid rescue drugs should not be used in lieu of long-term control drugs. Rescue drugs do not reduce inflammation. If this type of medication is noticed more than twice a week, consult your doctor to make appropriate changes to asthma control. [6] The following medicines include:

Short Acting Beta Agonists: An extensive medication for bronchitis, which provides quick relief from the symptoms of asthma attacks within minutes of inhalation by relaxing the smooth muscles around the airways and reducing the swelling that closes the airflow. Medicines are the first option for rapid elimination of asthma symptoms, for example, Albuterol (Albuterol). [7] [8]

Anticholinergics: These inhaled drugs act more slowly than short-acting beta stimulants, opening airways and reducing mucus production. There are some medications that contain a combination of short-acting beta stimulants and anticholinergens together. [7]

Allergic drugs

These drugs may help if asthma triggers or becomes worse due to allergies , including: [8]

Allergy shots or immunotherapy : The injection of allergies gradually reduces the immune system’s reaction to certain sensitizing substances.

Omalizumab : This drug is given in the form of injections every two to four weeks for people with severe asthma and allergies.

Home remedies

There are many things that a patient can do to maintain health and reduce asthma attacks, including: [10] [11]

Avoid exposure to asthma triggers, such as using an air conditioner to reduce pollination and dust mites, maintain optimum moisture and regularly clean the house; to get rid of dust, and cover mouth and nose in cold weather.

Maintain good health and self-care; exercise regularly to strengthen the heart and lungs, maintain a healthy weight , control heartburn, and gastroesophageal reflux disease .

A few herbs and natural remedies that may help improve the symptoms of asthma; such as black bean, caffeine, but you should consult your doctor before taking it, and of course do not reap the use of medications.

References

↑ “What Is Asthma?” , National Institutes of Health , 4-8-2014, Retrieved 26-8-2017. Edited

↑ Mayo Clinic Staff (30-8-2016), “Asthma” , Mayo Clinic , Retrieved 26-8-2017. Edited

↑ “Diagnosing asthma” , National Asthma Council Australia , 1-6-2016, Retrieved 26-8-2017. Edited

↑ “What Causes or Triggers Asthma?” , Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America , 1-9-2015, Retrieved 26-8-2017. Edited

↑ Mayo Clinic Staff (30-8-2016), “Asthma” , Mayo Clinic , Retrieved 26-8-2017. Edited

^ A b t w c “How Is Asthma Treated and Controlled? ” , National Institutes of Health , 4-8-2014, Retrieved 26-8-2017. Edited

^ A b t w c “Asthma Treatment” , Asthma , Allergy And Foundation Of America , 1-9-2015, Retrieved 26-8-2017. Edited

^ A b t w c h x d y Mayo , Clinic Staff (30-8-2016), “Asthma” , Mayo , Clinic , Retrieved 26-8-2017. Edited

↑ Anna Giorgi (16-2-2016), “Oral Thrush” , Healthline , Retrieved 27-8-2017. Edited

↑ Mayo Clinic Staff (30-8-2016), “Asthma” , Mayo Clinic , Retrieved 26-8-2017. Edited

↑ Mayo Clinic Staff (30-8-2016), “Asthma” , Mayo Clinic , Retrieved 26-8-2107. Edited

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